Note: The following applies to kernels >=2.6.18.
You must have both SCSI CDROM support and ATAPI CDROM support in the kernel. You can compile them in-kernel, or as modules, as shown here.
# cd /usr/src/linux # make menuconfig
For genkernel users:
# genkernel --menuconfig all
Add SCSI and ATAPI CDROM support:
|Linux Kernel Configuration: SCSI and ATAPI CDROM Support|
SCSI CDROM support:
Device Drivers ---> SCSI device support ---> --- SCSI device support --- SCSI support type (disk, tape, CD-ROM) <M> SCSI CDROM support [*] Enable vendor-specific extensions (for SCSI CDROM)
ATAPI CDROM support:
Device Drivers ---> ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---> <M> ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support <M> Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support --- Please see Documentation/ide.txt for help/info on IDE dri <M> Include IDE/ATAPI CDROM support
Note: You may not need to enable vendor-specific extensions, read the help provided (< Help >) for more information.
Again, both SCSI CDROM support and ATAPI CDROM support must be compiled (either as modules, or in-kernel).
Genkernel users, skip this step.
Compile the new kernel:
# make && make modules_install
Mount your /boot partition if it isn't already and copy over the new kernel, replacing "kernel-2.6.20-*" with the name of your kernel:
# mount /boot # cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/kernel-2.6.20-*
If you compiled SCSI and ATAPI CDROM support in-kernel (not as modules), reboot and skip the two next steps. Otherwise, proceed on to loading the modules.
Load the modules:
If you compiled the SCSI and ATAPI CDROM support above as modules (<M> and not <*>), you may now load them.
First, you must know the names of the modules you just compiled. Do so with the following command:
The (relevant) output should look something like this:
|Code: modprobe --list|
/lib/modules/2.6.20-hardened-r2/kernel/drivers/cdrom/cdrom.ko /lib/modules/2.6.20-hardened-r2/kernel/drivers/scsi/sr_mod.ko /lib/modules/2.6.20-hardened-r2/kernel/drivers/ide/ide-cd.ko /lib/modules/2.6.20-hardened-r2/kernel/drivers/ide/ide-core.ko
Note: Output will differ according to the kernel version (2.6.20-*) you have and which options you configured above.
Now you can load the modules. E.g., for the output above, the correct command would be:
for i in "cdrom sr_mod ide-cd ide-core" do modprobe $i done
Auto load modules on boot:
If you compiled the SCSI and ATAPI CDROM support above as modules, edit kernel-2.6, located in the /etc/modules.autoload.d/ directory, to automatically load them at boot time.
cdrom sr_mod ide-cd ide-core
If everything went fine, dmesg should now output something similar to this:
scsi 0:0:0:0: CD-ROM MATSHITA DVD-RAM UJ-841S 1.50 PQ: 0 ANSI: 5 Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20 sr 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi CD-ROM sr0
Your CD/DVD drive should now appear as /dev/sr0. You should also see symbolic links named, e.g, /dev/cdrom1.
First, lets make sure you have the following software installed
emerge -n cdrtools
Even if you plan to write DVDs, you can do that with cdrtools. You don't need cdrecord-prodvd or dvdrtools, just cdrtools (and cdrdao and dvd+rw-tools) are enough.
user burning for kernel >= 18.104.22.168 - (18.04.05)
You cannot use the special bit setuid root anymore.
This means: users wanting to use the XCDRoast software, cannot. See http://www.xcdroast.org for more details. However, XCDRoast can still be run under 'root' sucessfully.
Managing the groups and permissions
Set binary permissions:
chmod 750 /usr/bin/cdrdao chmod 750 /usr/bin/cdrecord chown root:cdrw /usr/bin/cdrdao chown root:cdrw /usr/bin/cdrecord
Set device permissions:
Permissions should be set up properly by default:
$ ls -l /dev/sr0 brw-rw---- 1 root cdrom 11, 0 May 9 08:22 /dev/sr0
Group should read cdrom and the device should be group writable, as above.
# chown root:cdrom /dev/sr0 # chmod g+w /dev/sr0
Grant user permissions:
Finally, add the user to the cdrom group and log in to the new group:
# gpasswd -a $username cdrom # gpasswd -a $username cdrw # newgrp
Note: remember to substitute the $username variable with the actual username you wish to add to the cdrom/cdrw groups.
User burning should now work.
Get your device id
To burn an iso with cdrecord you will have to find out the device id. This is used to identify your burner on the scsi bus. Yes even for ATAPI drives you will need the device id. Find it by issuing the following command
cdrecord dev=ATAPI -scanbus
It will give out put like below
Cdrecord-ProDVD-Clone 2.01.01a11 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2006 Jörg Schilling scsidev: 'ATAPI' devname: 'ATAPI' scsibus: -2 target: -2 lun: -2 Warning: Using ATA Packet interface. Warning: The related Linux kernel interface code seems to be unmaintained. Warning: There is absolutely NO DMA, operations thus are slow. Using libscg version 'schily-0.8'. scsibus0: 0,0,0 0) '_NEC ' 'DVD_RW ND-3540A ' '1.F1' Removable CD-ROM 0,1,0 1) * 0,2,0 2) * 0,3,0 3) * 0,4,0 4) * 0,5,0 5) * 0,6,0 6) * 0,7,0 7) *
Notice the 3 numbers seperated by commas, this is the device id that should be used for cdrecord. Mine is 0,0,0 but yours could be different so you need to replace it below with your device id.
Some people will advice to use dev=/dev/hdc but this is unsupported and might not work. It might work for you, but it is wrong. Try this method, however, if the recommended method returns no results.
If you get this message: Warning: dev=ATA: is preferred over dev=ATAPI:. Warning: Using ATA Packet interface. Warning: The related Linux kernel interface code seems to be unmaintained. Warning: There is absolutely NO DMA, operations thus are slow. cdrecord: No such file or directory. Cannot open or use SCSI driver. cdrecord: For possible targets try 'cdrecord -scanbus'. Make sure you are root. cdrecord: For possible transport specifiers try 'cdrecord dev=help'.
then change ATAPI to ATA, or try removing the dev option altogether: cdrecord dev=ATA -scanbus or cdrecord -scanbus
Preparing the ISO image
First, create a directory and then copy all the files you want to burn into /tmp/iso. Then create the image.iso
mkdir /tmp/iso cp *.doc /tmp/iso mkisofs -o /tmp/image.iso /tmp/iso
mkisofs -RJ -o /tmp/image.iso /tmp/iso
(optional) Mount the iso image to check it
mkdir /tmp/loop mount -o loop=/dev/loop/0 /tmp/image.iso /tmp/loop
Now you have the iso filesystem mounted at /tmp/loop and can browse it.
Finally, don't forget to unmount.
Burning the ISO image
To burn the iso use the following command. Replace the 0,0,0 (device id) with the id you found in chapter 5.
cdrecord dev=ATAPI:0,0,0 /tmp/image.iso
You might also want to add driveropts=burnfree to turn on buffer underrun protection. Note that your burner will have to support buffer underrun protection for this to work. Note: Sometimes while doing dev=ATAPI:#,#,# fails so do chapter 5 with option OLDATAPI and cdrecord dev=OLDATAPI also to fix that problem.
Example: Burning image.iso using device 1001,0,0 with burner protection turned on: cdrecord dev=1001,0,0 driveropts=burnfree /tmp/image.iso
Blanking a CDRW
cdrecord blank=fast dev=ATAPI:0,0,0 Or cdrecord blank=fast dev=/dev/cdrom
Change 0,0,0 with the device id you found in chapter 5.
Burning an audio CD
See the Audio CD HOWTO for more information.
- Use the speed=# option with cdrecord to adjust the speed.
- Use the -multi option to start or continue a multisession disk (not necessary for the last session).
- Use -J -r dir_with_files to burn in "on-the-fly" mode (no ISO file needed).
If, for any reason, this doesn't work with just cdrecord command you should use the pipeline (see man cdrecord), like this:
(R - for Rock Ridge, J - for Joliet)
mkisofs -RJ <path_to_dir_with_files> | cdrecord -v dev=ATAPI:0,0,0 -eject -
cdrecord will run without creating an .iso file then (on-the-fly)
Note: dash at the end of line is required
- Use the -v option to show progress.
- Use driveropts=burnfree to enable buffer underrun protection.
- Use the -eject option to eject the CD after burning.
- Some drives need to know the size of a track before starting to write, in this case run
mkisofs -RJ <path_to_dir_with_files> | cdrecord -v dev=ATAPI:0,0,0 -eject tsize=`mkisofs -RJ -quiet -print-size <path_to_dir_with_files>`s -
Save the settings to the config file
Create the config file for cdrecord: /etc/default/cdrecord
And put there something like this:
mycdr=ATAPI:0,0,0 -1 -1 burnfree CDR_DEVICE=mycdr CDR_SPEED=24 CDR_FIFOSIZE=30000k
In this example the cd-r device is /dev/hdb, burnfree is enabled, writing speed is reduced to 24x (set CDR_SPEED to -1 and max speed supported by drive and media will be used) and fifo size is increased to 30 megs.
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